Conflict negotiation thesis
For example here Deloitte has to consider what would happen if they do not merge with Anderson Canada. Will they simply vanish? Would they go to a competing firm such as KMPG? Is Deloitte capable of handling such competition? The fifth step is similar to what we did in step three, but instead of evaluating the criterion we evaluate its alternatives.
Here Deloitte will have to take the alternatives into consideration and rank what is most important for the organization. The assumption here is that there is no time or cost constraints. There is enough time for the decision maker to obtain full information about the alternatives, and prioritize them on scale. Deloitte, in this case has some time restrictions place upon it, because the company is in need of a swift integration.
The final step is to choose the best option providing optimal results for the organization, and ranks the highest score on the criterion. The assumption here is of maximum payoff, meaning the chosen decision yields the highest value for the organization as a whole. Deloitte chose to move onwards with the integration, not only does this decision strengthen the organization but it also reduces the chances of the competition getting tougher. Yes, ethics are a dimension in this case; this is made evident through the use of utilitarianism and care ethics.
Utilitarianism in essence is concerned with maximizing the good and minimizing the bad. Deloitte believes that this integration will help strengthen the organization as a whole because Deloitte would be adding to its staff over a thousand highly trained professionals, which in turn leads them to being more successful and appealing in the market place. Here it is obvious that the integration with Anderson Canada has more pros then cons, because if Anderson Canada was to integrate with another organization not only would Deloitte loose a substantial amount of billings, but the competition would get tougher too.
Care ethics is defined as a practice or virtue rather than a theory; it involves meeting the needs of ourselves and others. It builds on the motivation to care for those who are dependant and vulnerable. After the Enron scandal Anderson Canada even tough loyal had their image tarnished and most of their business lost. It was Deloitte that believed that leaving these highly skilled professionals out in the called due to a scandal they had no part in is wrong, saving the vulnerable and showing a dimension of care ethics.
The book describes organizational structure as defining how jobs are formally divided, grouped and coordinated. There are various aspects of organizational structure are listed below:. Work specialization is the degree to which the tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs. At Deloitte there is a high degree of work specialization. Departments are split up and each is responsible for providing specific type of service, and individuals are responsible for a certain task in the department.
Each individual might be contained to a specific department, but boredom is avoided because each client has different needs which provide the employees with new challenges. For instance, the integration team consists of heads of functions officers whose duties are to execute a supportive plan from Human Resources department, and the Information Technology department to ensure the transitions are seamless.
Departmentalization is the grouping of common tasks together. Here we look at the basis of how can these jobs be grouped together, and what belongs where? Deloitte follows a fourfold system. Its departments are split into assurance and advisory which provide attest services. Financial Advisory department which essentially offers crisis management services such as solving business crime. Next we have consulting services, these services are meant to help clients develop and enhance their business strategies. Lastly, we have the tax services which do both personal and corporate tax filings.
Various departments are created at Deloitte to offer better customer satisfaction, which can only be done through specialization. A chain of command is an unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest echelon and clarifies who reports to whom. Since Deloitte is a giant organization it gets hard for a single team of managers to take control and maintain the status quo in each and every department nationally.
Therefore, there is a set up in placing delegating individuals to carry out specific duties and then communicate these results back to those in higher command. At Deloitte major decisions are made by top management with little consideration given to those in lower levels of the organization.
This is apparent through the members of the integration committee and that even though pulse surveys are committed, they might not play a major role in the decision making process. This refers to centralization, the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization.
Formalization refers to the degree to which jobs within the organization are standardized. Formalized jobs involve lots of rules and clearly defined procedures. Deloitte being an accounting firm will have formalized rules in place regarding input, processing and output of tasks.
What needs to be done, and how it should be done all need to be conducted according to organizational standards and procedures. Deloitte has a survey in place called the Pulse survey, which takes place randomly every month and asks people various questions about the integration and their opinions. This is a change process known as action research, where a change action is based on the systematic collection of data and what it indicates. Noble is using this survey as a benchmark unit; remedial actions are taken if integration goals are not attained at various stages.
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For example the feedback received from the third survey is subpar, and this is what Mr. Noble will be using to express his concerns about the integration process during the September meeting. This data is important because first of all it is authentic since it is anonymous, second it is monitoring the change inside the company and of the employees. Employees are provided an opportunity to share their true feelings without any repercussions.
The Pulse survey is an accurate form of measurement in aspect to evaluating the success of the integration process and its effect on the organization. The force for change in this case is of competition.
The unfreezing stage requires efforts to overcome the pressures of both individual resistance and group conformity, thus enabling the unfreezing of the status quo. Here Mr. The driving force in this scenario would be of a much more successful and competitive image of Deloitte after the integrations. Whereas, the restraining forces are of those employees not wanting change. The unfreezing process has already started at Deloitte.
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The integration team has already introduced a new logo and slogan for the organization which embodies the idea of both these organizations working together. Noble can further unfreeze the current status quo by winning over managers and employees through the role of a transformational leader. Another tool for unfreezing can be of offering extrinsic and intrinsic awards which encourage employees pull away from the old fashioned ways of getting things done towards a new status quo.
The second step is of moving. Moving involves getting employees to jump on board with the idea of a change. Noble is trying to get individuals involved the process of change trough open, anonymous communication where individuals are actively encouraged to voice their opinions.
Individuals are given new titles, new surroundings, and new colleagues which might also act as a positive incentive for some individuals. The last step is of refreezing. Refreezing is stabilising a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces. In simpler term refreezing is making the change permanent. Cultural change in an organization is a slow and lengthy process, and the only way it is possible to maintain and firmly put in a new status quo is to make sure there are strong controls in place to make sure the culture does not into its old ways.
A good way of maintaining the new status quo would be to reward employees based on the new culture, and making it clear to the employees, how these rewards can be collected. The first step is to establish a sense of urgency by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed.
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However, as negotiation is often perceived as a combative exercise in which individuals attempt to conceal information Thompson, , it can be difficult to identify the level of alignment between interests within the negotiation context. In effect, the level of discussion can influence the likelihood of particular solutions being reached Lytle et al. When the interests of the parties involved are diametrically opposed, the negotiation is known as a fixed-sum or a distributive negotiation Thompson, In these situations, pure conflict between the parties is present.
A negotiation that could be described as distributive would be one in which an employee requires that she take two weeks leave during the school holiday period to spend time with her children, and her employer requires that she work during this period. In this instance there is no way for both parties' preferences to be achieved: one party's loss is the other party's gain.
For an agreement to be reached, one of the parties would need to concede their interests. In discussing their interests, the parties engaged in this type of negotiation come to the realisation that both sets of interests can be met fully. This situation may occur, for example, in a relationship in which one partner wants to eat meals before a certain time so that she can play sport later in the evening, and the other partner, because of metabolic requirements, needs to eat within a certain timeframe after arriving home from work.
These interests nonetheless induce a solution that is completely compatible: by eating early in the evening, both parties' needs or interests are met. Pure coordination negotiations, because they involve no real differences in interests, are rarely the subject of investigation Thompson, When interests are neither purely opposed nor purely compatible, the negotiation is termed a variable-sum or an integrative negotiation.
This type of negotiation comprises the majority of conflict situations and typically involves more than one issue in contention Lewicki, et al. To illustrate the way that interests might be integrative, consider a scenario in which a recently separated husband and wife -- Dan and Julie -- are attempting to divide up their acquisitions.
One of the pivotal issues in dispute involves the use of the beachside holiday house. Both parties want to have the house available for their weekend relaxation purposes and do not want to be there together. After some discussion, the couple decides to use the house during alternating weekends. In reaching such an agreement, the parties can be said to be compromising and the solution reached can be viewed as a compromise solution, which typically involves splitting the resource in question evenly. However, in the case of Julie and Dan, more optimal solutions are available. On further discussion Dan recognises that he wants to continue writing his novel in a relaxed setting and so would also like to use the house during the week as well as on some weekends.https://crisacrecaloo.tk
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Similarly, Julie indicates that she wants to take holidays in accordance with the children's school holidays and would therefore benefit from using the house during some weeks of the year. Through this discussion more opportunities are provided for further bargaining and as a result the couple decides that Julie should use the house on most weekends and during some weeks, and that Dan should use the house during the week and on some weekends.
Ultimately, both parties secure a greater proportion of their interests. Optimising the solution in this way in part involves compromising, but also involves creating value by increasing the amount of the resource in dispute.
All of these types of knowledge are generic in that they apply across specific situations. It is important to emphasize, however, that although such knowledge is useful, even indispensable to practice, a conflict resolution practitioner also needs accurate situation-specific knowledge in order to act effectively. Skilled practitioners use their judgment to combine generic and specific knowledge in order to act in what are always unique decision situations.